Contemporary foreign-sponsored information operations exploit modern political advertising techniques as well as advances in communications technology, especially the world wide web, which allows actors to reach audiences almost anywhere on the globe nearly instantaneously. Though the techniques of Russian information operations have roots in former Soviet practices, like the Soviet strategy of maskirovka or military deception, the current Russian approach has taken the traditional emphasis on psychological warfare found in Soviet conceptualisations of propaganda and adapted it to use novel information technologies and social media, which take advantage of faster communication and the highly globalised nature of the 21st-century world.
The internet, hour news agencies, and the advent of digital media platforms have enhanced the Russian information warfare arsenal. Whereas during the Cold War it took Soviet intelligence years to plant disinformation in foreign publications that might be picked up in mainstream international media, the Kremlin can now rapidly disseminate its talking points and favourite falsehoods throughout the world by using coordinated official and covert whose inauthentic accounts pretend to represent other actors media postings.
While the Soviets used to orchestrate their propaganda to promote a single coherent party line, the preferred Russian technique has become to push multiple storylines to make nothing certain or true.
The latter messaging can muddy the objective reality of what has occurred through a barrage of falsehoods, conspiracy theories and deceptive information. Contemporary Russian media techniques also include taking a small truth and stretching it, crafting messages to elicit an emotional response, and pushing inflammatory content to exploit fissures among and within societies.
In terms of tactics, during the current pandemic, the Russian foreign ministry took the lead in challenging Western news reports, which had claimed that the Kremlin was undercounting the number of COVID cases in the country. Some messaging pushed the conspiracy theory that the COVID disease was a hoax or a plot designed to enrich Big Pharma or the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, who could make a fortune in developing treatments and vaccines for the new illness.
In mid-February, false rumours circulated that Ukrainian citizens and other non-Chinese nationals, arriving from China and undergoing temporary quarantine in the remote city of Novi Sanzhary, had tested positive for the virus.
Subsequent investigation found that pro-Russian groups spoofed emails made to appear as if they came from the Ukrainian Ministry of Health, social media postings, and Russian-language TV broadcasts in which they falsely warned the inhabitants that the incoming travellers were Chinese nationals infected with COVID and called on people to organise road blockades and other violent measures to prevent their arrival to protect their families.
Nevertheless, the COVID disinformation campaign has differed in important respects from previous Russian-backed influence operations. In recent years, Italian governments have enjoyed better relations with the Kremlin than many other EU or NATO countries, so Moscow might plausibly hope that, in gratitude for the aid, Italy could block the continuation of these sanctions by withholding approval.
Another benefit of the Russian ground operations in Italy was that they provided Russia with opportunities to test its biological defence units on foreign operations as well as to collect intelligence on both the virus improving threat assessments and the crisis response capabilities of a major NATO ally aiding vulnerability assessments hosting important US defence facilities.
Reporters further noted how the ventilators Russia delivered to New York were made by a subsidiary of the Rostec conglomerate and partly paid for by the Russian Direct Investment Fund, both sanctioned entities. The US later donated ventilators to Russia without cost. Russian-linked commentary about the pandemic has also denounced the inhumanity of maintaining sanctions on countries suffering from the COVID onslaught.
In addition, president Putin and other Russian government leaders appealed directly to their foreign counterparts to remove these sanctions. Furthermore, the COVID-related Russian disinformation campaign differed from some previous ones in being more opportunistic and indigenous.Villes incontournables france
In the US presidential elections, the Internet Research Agency and other Russian entities created or hijacked American identities to spread Moscow-manufactured divisive messages on social media. This year, in addition to generating their own content, Russian-linked outlets have frequently referenced falsehoods that originated with other sources, for instance by recirculating conspiracies blaming the US for the virus. Russian officials repeatedly defended China against Western allegations that the PRC had, by concealing information about the virus, contributed to the global pandemic.
Russia has failed to secure major sanctions relief. One reason has been that Russian authorities have refused to make the policy changes required by legislation for suspending or removing the sanctions. Downplaying the virus to foreign audiences could lead Russians to fail to make adequate preparations once the pandemic hit them with full force.
Russian officials have notably eschewed repeating the outlandish comments sometimes found in the Russian-linked media. I see no reason to doubt that. Putin assumed a low profile and let the regional governors, large city mayors and federal government ministers have the major visible role in handling the crisis, giving them authority to impose restrictions and other response measures.
The strategy has worked in the past, with Putin, like earlier tsars, presenting himself as a leader who operates above the incompetent subordinates. But such arguments faded as Russia succumbed to the virus like other countries. For several months, Russia became the third-most-infected country in the world after the US and Brazil, only overtaken by India in July.Intelligence services reportedly targeting American and western audiences to exploit crisis ahead of US presidential election.
US officials say Russian intelligence services are using a trio of English-language websites to spread disinformation about the coronavirus pandemic, seeking to exploit a crisis that America is struggling to contain ahead of the presidential election in November.
They spoke to the Associated Press on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to speak publicly. The information had previously been classified, but officials said it had been downgraded so they could more freely discuss it.
Officials said they were doing so now to sound the alarm about the particular websites and to expose what they say is a clear link between the sites and Russian intelligence. Between late May and early July, one of the officials said, the websites published about articles about the pandemic response, including coverage aimed either at propping up Russia or denigrating the US.
US officials look to avoid a repeat of the race, when Russia launched a covert social media campaign to divide American public opinion and to favor then-candidate Donald Trump over his Democratic opponent, Hillary Clinton. Even apart from politics, the twin crises buffeting the country and much of the world — the pandemic and race relations and protests — have offered fertile territory for misinformation or outfight falsehoods. Trump himself has come under scrutiny for sharing misinformation about a disproven drug for treating the coronavirus in videos that were taken down by Twitter and Facebook.
Officials described the Russian disinformation as part of an ongoing and persistent effort to advance false narratives and cause confusion. They did not say whether the effort behind these particular websites was directly related to the November election, though some of the coverage appeared to denigrate Joe Biden, and does call to mind Russian efforts from to exacerbate race relations in America and drive corruption allegations against US political figures. Though US officials have warned before about the spread of disinformation tied to the pandemic, they went further on Tuesday by singling out a particular information agency that is registered in Russia, InfoRos and that operates a series of websites — InfoRos.
The sites promote their narratives in a sophisticated but insidious effort that US officials liken to money laundering, where stories in well-written English — and often with pro-Russian sentiment and anti-US sentiment — are cycled through other news sources to conceal their origin and enhance the legitimacy of the information.
The sites also amplify stories that originate elsewhere, the government officials said. A headline Tuesday on InfoRos. Two individuals who have also held leadership roles at InfoRos, identified Tuesday as Denis Valeryevich Tyurin and Aleksandr Gennadyevich Starunskiy, have previously served in a GRU unit specializing in military psychological intelligence and maintain deep contacts there, the officials said.
From apps to podcasts, COVID-19 has forced language learning online
The researchers identified technical clues tying their websites to Russia and identified some financial connections between InfoRos and the government. US news.
This article is more than 6 months old. A healthcare worker administers a Covid test in Tucson, Arizona. Associated Press. Wed 29 Jul Coronavirus: US says Russia behind disinformation campaign.
Coronavirus (COVID-19) resources in your own language
Read more. Reuse this content.Excess deaths are the difference between the total number of deaths registered and the average over the previous years for the same period.
Countries use different methods when reporting deaths related to the virus, which makes international comparisons difficult. Russia has been criticised for calculating its official deaths from Covid based on the number of post-mortem examinations that list coronavirus as the main cause of death.
However, this means that other deaths linked to Covid, which did not list it as the main cause of death, will not have been included. The new numbers mean Russia's coronavirus death toll could be the world's third-highest, after the US withdeaths and Brazil, which has hadaccording to a tally by Johns Hopkins University. Deputy Prime Minister Tatiana Golikova said mortality in the first 11 months of had been Based on her announcement, that would mean that more thandeaths were linked directly or indirectly to coronavirus.
According to Rosstat, the Russian statistics agency,more people had died this year from all causes. But Ms Golikova was adamant the Russian government had never hidden mortality data. Coronavirus-linked deaths in Russia were higher in November than at any time this year.
She said December as well as November were worse than previous months because Covid infections were increasing in conjunction with other diseases during the autumn and winter period. President Vladimir Putin has hailed the country's healthcare system as more effective than the rest of the world in tackling the virus, however hospitals in many areas of the country have struggled to cope with the rise in patients.
Vaccinations with the drug began in Belarus on Tuesday, with seven medics receiving the drug at a clinic in Minsk.
Spain to keep registry of those who refuse vaccine. Official figures say 55, people have died with Covid in Russia.
The deputy prime minister said excess deaths would take that toMore than 3. Sputnik V vaccine rushed out to wary Russians EU starts mass vaccination in 'moment of unity' Coronavirus variants: The science explained. In other developments around Europe:. The Netherlands is due to start vaccinating later than any other EU country and Roel Coutinho says the government realised too late that it was not the same as a flu-vaccine drive.
Related Topics. Russia Coronavirus pandemic Coronavirus vaccines.For Poplack, language acquisition requires two things: exposure to language as it's actually spoken, and the possibility of interacting with native speakers. Never," Poplack said. And the discipline that's gone along with it. Trevor Pritchard is the weekend assignment producer at CBC Ottawa, but he occasionally fills in as a reporter.
He's previously reported in Toronto, Saskatoon and Cornwall, Ont.Jackson core
A variety of newsletters you'll love, delivered straight to you. Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted. By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Please note that CBC does not endorse the opinions expressed in comments.
Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. Comments are welcome while open. We reserve the right to close comments at any time. But it's not clear yet what that means for language acquisition. Social Sharing. Nearly one year later, she's still at it. About the Author. Trevor Pritchard CBC reporter.
Best-laid plans were derailed by 2020 and pandemic -- even for Vladimir Putin
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Was this page helpful? Yes No. Tell me your email.CNN Russian President Vladimir Putin began with a surprise, sweeping his entire government aside on January 15 after unveiling a raft of constitutional reforms.
More Videos Putin responds to CNN investigation, does not deny Navalny was tracked Observers were quick to read the fine print: The constitutional overhaul would reset the clock on presidential term limits, potentially extending Putin's hold on power until A referendum was set for April, and Putin seemed to be coasting toward a presidency-for-life.
What followed instead was an annus horribilis for Russia, and perhaps Putin's most challenging year to date. As Covid started to spread around the globe, Russia briefly appeared to be on the front foot. The country sealed its border with China, and Putin boasted that the virus was "under control," thanks to what he described as robust early measures to halt the spread of the disease. But that approach was little more than bluster and spin. Not long after the government announced a nationwide lockdown that began on March 28, it became clear the country was in the grip of a major public health crisis.
Read More. The government was forced to postpone the referendum on constitutional changes. Putin says if Russia wanted to kill opposition leader Navalny, it would have 'finished' the job. Doubts grew about how well the Kremlin was handling the pandemic and whether it was leveling with the Russian public about the severity of the crisis. Such suspicions only grew as Russian doctors and medical personnel turned to social media to raise the alarm about underfunded hospitals and a death toll they said was higher than officially acknowledged.
Reports of frontline healthcare workers falling from windows and fires from faulty Russian-made ventilators further eroded public trust. Russia's economic situation was also dire. The country was mired in a coronavirus-induced recession, compounded by plummeting global prices for oil, a key export. Such profound economic stress threatened to derail the ruling United Russia party's political program by exposing deep weaknesses in the social compact that has kept Putin in power for two decades.
Reports of ventilators catching fire at an intensive care unit at the St. George Hospital in St.9ct gold bangle
Petersburg in May added to doubts over how the Kremlin was handling the pandemic. Putin's political durability is often attributed to a simple bargain between him and his citizens: Accept limited political competition in exchange for stability and steady increases in the standard of living.
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But amid the pandemic, that deal has begun to unravel. In July, protests erupted in the far eastern city of Khabarovsk, where thousands took to the streets in extremely unusual street protests in support of the region's governor, Sergei Furgal, who had been arrested and charged with orchestrating the murders of two businessmen in and Furgal denied involvement in the murders. His supporters saw the case as a politically motivated prosecution of a regional opponent of United Russia.
Perhaps equally worrying for the Kremlin, street protests swept neighboring Belarus in August, after the incumbent President Alexander Lukashenko, often described as Europe's last dictator, claimed victory in an election observers said was marred by widespread fraud.Coronavirus in Russia: 'I don't trust Putin any more' - BBC News
Lukashenko, who has ruled sincerefused to step aside and his security forces brutalized and detained thousands of Belarusians, leaving the Kremlin faced with the uncomfortable scenario of citizens in a neighboring and closely allied country refusing to play along with Russian-style sham democracy. The Kremlin did manage to hold the nationwide referendum that secured constitutional changes, with the help of a nationwide get-out-the-vote campaign, a state holiday and the mobilization of the country's large state sector, which accounts for a large part of the workforce.The government of Russia has initially responded to the COVID pandemic in the country with preventive measures to curb the spread of the coronavirus disease in the country, which involved imposing quarantines, carrying raids on potential virus carriers, and using facial recognition to impose quarantine measures.
The Russian government has also taken measures to prevent foreign citizens from heavily affected countries from visiting Russia. On 31 January, first two cases in the country were confirmed, one in TyumenTyumen Oblastand another one in ChitaZabaykalsky Krai.
Both were Chinese nationals.Nyet in russian
The Russian consumer health watchdog Rospotrebnadzor advised tourists to refrain from visiting Wuhan and stay away from Chinese zoos and markets selling animals and seafood. The agency also said that development of a vaccine against the virus was underway, relying on the WHO's recommendations. A total of Russians were evacuated from Wuhanthe initial centre of the outbreak, and were quarantined in Tyumen Oblast for two weeks from 5 February.
On 24 March, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin told President Putin at a meeting that "a serious situation is unfolding" and that the relatively low number of confirmed cases could be due to a low level of testing, saying that "there are far more people who are infected" and that the number of people in Moscow suspected of having the coronavirus was about On 24 January, the first testing systems were developed and deployed to laboratories around the country.
According to Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikovaas of 25 March state laboratories were conducting tests in 79 federal subjects. There is a drive to further expand testing with any laboratory being able to carry out tests by submitting a notification to the central website. The speed of people reporting illness has improved from 6 days to the day people find symptoms. Russia continued to have the 2nd highest rate of testing in the world with 4.Screech meaning in telugu
Melita Vujnovic, the World Health Organization 's representative in Russia, stated that Russia, in accordance with WHO recommendations, "started testing literally at the end of January.
In a study announced on 14 May, 5. Petersburg had detectable levels of antibodies to coronavirus. The study covered 1, coronavirus-positive volunteers aged from 11 to 93 with no COVID symptoms.
The study was carried out by Virology Center of St. Petersburg's Hospital No 40 who have carried out 22, coronavirus tests since the study started on 1 April. Antibody testing was carried out on the basis of enzyme-linked immunoassay.
The announcement stated "The idea is that many hope that after having mild forms of the disease they could be spared from it. Practice however shows that it is not so.
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